AskDefine | Define Mali

Dictionary Definition

Mali n : a landlocked republic in northwestern Africa; achieved independence from France in 1960; Mali was a center of West African civilization for more than 4,000 years [syn: Republic of Mali, French Sudan]

User Contributed Dictionary

see mali

English

Etymology

Inherits its name from the Mali Empire.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Mali
  1. Country in Western Africa. Official name: Republic of Mali.

Translations

  • Bosnian: Mali
  • Breton: Mali
  • Chinese: 马里 (mǎlǐ)
  • Croatian: Mali
  • Czech: Mali
  • Danish: Mali
  • Dutch: Mali
  • Esperanto: Malio
  • Finnish: Mali
  • French: Mali
  • German: Mali
  • Greek: Μάλι (máli), Μαλί (malí)
  • Hungarian: Mali
  • Interlingua: Mali
  • Italian: Mali
  • Japanese: マリ (mari), マリ共和国 (マリきょうわこく, mari-kyouwakoku)
  • Norwegian: Mali
  • Polish: Mali
  • Portuguese: Mali
  • Romanian: Mali
  • Russian: Мали (Mali)
  • Slovenian: Mali
  • Spanish: Malí
  • Swedish: Mali
  • Turkish: Mali

See also

Croatian

Proper noun

Mali

Czech

Proper noun

  1. Mali

Finnish

Proper noun

  1. Mali

Derived terms

Italian

Proper noun

Mali

Derived terms

Norwegian

Proper noun

Mali

Related terms

Swedish

Proper noun

Mali

Extensive Definition

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked nation in Western Africa. Mali is the seventh largest country in Africa, bordering Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d'Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west.
Consisting of eight regions, Mali's borders on the north stretch straightly into the center of the Sahara, while the country's southern region, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economical structure centers around agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's natural resources include gold, uranium, and salt. Due to a high incidence of poverty, Mali is considered to be one of the poorest nations in the world.
Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (from which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. In the late 1800s, Mali fell under French control, becoming part of French Sudan. Mali gained independence in 1959 with Senegal, as the Mali Federation in 1959. A year later, the Mali Federation became the independent nation of Mali in 1960. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.

History

Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and other precious commodities. These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities.
The Mali Empire later formed on the upper Niger River, and reached the height of power in the fourteenth century. The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president, attempted to reform the economy. However, his efforts were frustrated by political turmoil and a devastating drought between 1968 to 1974. Today, Mali is one of the most politically and socially stable countries in Africa.

Geography

Mali is a landlocked nation in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria. At , Mali is the world's 24th-largest country and is comparable in size to South Africa or Peru. Most of the country lies in the southern Sahara, which produces a hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons. The country extends southwest through the subtropical Sahel to the Sudanian savanna zone. Each region has a governor. Since Mali's regions are huge, the country is subdivided into 49 cercles, totaling 288 arrondissements. Mayors and elected members of the city councils officiate the arrondissements. The system of government can be described as "semi-presidential." The president serves as chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. A prime minister appointed by the president serves as head of government and in turn appoints the Council of Ministers. The unicameral National Assembly is Mali’s sole legislative body, consisting of deputies elected to five-year terms. Following the 2007 elections, the Alliance for Democracy and Progress held 113 of 160 seats in the assembly. The assembly holds two regular sessions each year, during which it debates and votes on legislation that has been submitted by a member or by the government.
Mali’s constitution provides for an independent judiciary, but the executive continues to exercise influence over the judiciary by virtue of power to appoint judges and oversee both judicial functions and law enforcement. Various lower courts exist, though village chiefs and elders resolve most local disputes in rural areas. Since the institution of a democratic form of government in 2002, Mali’s relations with the West in general and with the United States in particular have improved significantly. The military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization. The average worker's annual salary is approximately US$1,500. The gross domestic product (GDP) has risen as a result. In 2002, the GDP amounted to US$3.4 billion, and increased to US$5.8 billion in 2005, which amounts to approximately 17.6% annual growth rate.
Mali's key industry is agriculture. Along with gold and livestock, agriculture is eighty percent of Mali's exports.
Cotton is exported west throughout Senegal and the Ivory Coast. During 2002, 620,000 tons of cotton were produced in Mali. In addition to cotton, Mali produces rice, millet, corn, vegetables, tobacco, and tree crops. Gold exists in Mali's southern region, making Mali the third ranking African country (after South Africa and Ghana) for gold production. The emergence of gold as Mali’s leading export product since 1999 has helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Côte d’Ivoire crises. Other natural resources include kaolin, salt, phosphate, and limestone. More than 90% of the population lives in the southern part of the country, especially in Bamako, which has over 1 million residents. Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world. Medical facilities in Mali are very limited, and medicines are in short supply. Malian music is diverse and has several different genres. Some famous Malian influences in music are kora virtouso musician Toumani Diabaté, the late roots and blues guitarist Ali Farka Touré, the Tuareg band Tinariwen, and several Afro-pop artists such as Salif Keita, the duo Amadou et Mariam, and Oumou Sangare.
Though Mali's literature is less famous than music, Mali has always been one of Africa's liveliest intellectual centers. Amadou Hampâté Bâ, Mali's best-known historian, spent much of his life recording these oral traditions. Most Malians wear flowing, colorful robes called boubous that are typical of West Africa. Malians frequently participate in traditional festivals, dances, and ceremonies. Malian cuisine varies regionally. which became more prominent after Mali hosted the 2002 African Cup of Nations. Most towns have regular games; the Mali women's national basketball team is the only African basketball team competing at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Traditional wrestling (la lutte) is also somewhat common, though popularity has declined in recent years. The game wari, a mancala variant, is a common pastime.

Citations

References

  • Constitution of Mali. A student-translated English version is also available.
  • Mali in Pictures
  • Hudgens, Jim, Richard Trillo, and Nathalie Calonnec. The Rough Guide to West Africa. Rough Guides (2003). ISBN 1843531186.
  • Mali country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 2005). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey. Military Coups in West Africa Since The Sixties, Huntington, New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2001.
  • Milet, Eric & Jean-Luc Manaud. Mali. Editions Olizane (2007). ISBN 2880863511.
  • Pye-Smith, Charlie & Rhéal Drisdelle. Mali: A Prospect of Peace? Oxfam (1997). ISBN 0855983345.
  • Velton, Ross. Mali. Bradt Travel Guides (2004). ISBN 1841620777.

External links

sisterlinks Mali
Mali in Afrikaans: Mali
Mali in Tosk Albanian: Mali
Mali in Amharic: ማሊ
Mali in Arabic: مالي
Mali in Aragonese: Mali
Mali in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): ܡܠܝ
Mali in Franco-Provençal: Mali
Mali in Asturian: Malí
Mali in Azerbaijani: Mali
Mali in Bambara: Mali
Mali in Bengali: মালি
Mali in Min Nan: Mali
Mali in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Малі
Mali in Bosnian: Mali
Mali in Breton: Mali
Mali in Bulgarian: Мали
Mali in Catalan: Mali
Mali in Cebuano: Mali
Mali in Czech: Mali
Mali in Welsh: Mali
Mali in Danish: Mali
Mali in German: Mali
Mali in Dhivehi: މާލީ
Mali in Estonian: Mali
Mali in Modern Greek (1453-): Μάλι
Mali in Spanish: Malí
Mali in Esperanto: Malio
Mali in Basque: Mali
Mali in Persian: مالی
Mali in French: Mali
Mali in Fulah: Maali
Mali in Irish: Mailí
Mali in Manx: Malee
Mali in Scottish Gaelic: Màili
Mali in Galician: Malí - Mali
Mali in Korean: 말리
Mali in Armenian: Մալի
Mali in Hindi: माली
Mali in Croatian: Mali
Mali in Ido: Mali
Mali in Iloko: Mali
Mali in Bishnupriya: মালি
Mali in Indonesian: Mali
Mali in Interlingue: Mali
Mali in Ossetian: Мали
Mali in Icelandic: Malí
Mali in Italian: Mali
Mali in Hebrew: מאלי
Mali in Javanese: Mali
Mali in Pampanga: Mali
Mali in Georgian: მალი
Mali in Kazakh: Мали
Mali in Cornish: Mali
Mali in Swahili (macrolanguage): Mali
Mali in Haitian: Mali
Mali in Latin: Malium
Mali in Latvian: Mali
Mali in Luxembourgish: Mali
Mali in Lithuanian: Malis
Mali in Ligurian: Mali
Mali in Limburgan: Mali
Mali in Lingala: Mali
Mali in Hungarian: Mali
Mali in Macedonian: Мали
Mali in Malayalam: മാലി
Mali in Marathi: माली
Mali in Malay (macrolanguage): Mali
Mali in Dutch: Mali
Mali in Newari: माली (जनकपुर)
Mali in Japanese: マリ共和国
Mali in Norwegian: Mali
Mali in Norwegian Nynorsk: Mali
Mali in Novial: Mali
Mali in Occitan (post 1500): Mali
Mali in Uzbek: Mali
Mali in Pushto: مالي
Mali in Piemontese: Mali
Mali in Low German: Mali
Mali in Polish: Mali
Mali in Portuguese: Mali
Mali in Crimean Tatar: Mali
Mali in Romanian: Mali
Mali in Quechua: Mali
Mali in Russian: Мали
Mali in Northern Sami: Mali
Mali in Sanskrit: माली
Mali in Albanian: Mali
Mali in Sicilian: Mali
Mali in Simple English: Mali
Mali in Slovak: Mali
Mali in Slovenian: Mali
Mali in Silesian: Mali
Mali in Serbian: Мали
Mali in Serbo-Croatian: Mali
Mali in Finnish: Mali
Mali in Swedish: Mali
Mali in Tagalog: Mali (bansa)
Mali in Tamil: மாலி
Mali in Kabyle: Mali
Mali in Thai: ประเทศมาลี
Mali in Vietnamese: Mali
Mali in Tajik: Малӣ
Mali in Turkish: Mali
Mali in Turkmen: Mali
Mali in Ukrainian: Малі
Mali in Urdu: مالی
Mali in Venetian: Małì
Mali in Volapük: Maliyän
Mali in Wolof: Mali
Mali in Yoruba: Mali
Mali in Dimli: Mali
Mali in Samogitian: Malis
Mali in Chinese: 马里共和国
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